Sunday, March 15, 2020

Spatial Differences Between Males and Females

Spatial Differences Between Males and Females Free Online Research Papers Although many studies have been conducted on interpersonal distance throughout history, it remains uncertain how it should be defined. The Dictionary of Psychology defines interpersonal distance as the distance that people select to separate their ‘bubble’ of personal space from one or more other individuals (Corsini, 1999). This definition appears vague and does not address what usually happens through the invasion of one’s personal space. According to Hayduk (1978), personal space would be â€Å"the area individual humans actively maintain around themselves into which others cannot intrude without arousing discomfort† (p. 118). Altman (1975) has noticed that each definition has four properties. First, it has an invisible boundary separating ourselves from others. Second, it would be literally connected to the self. Third, the invisible boundary adjusts to different situations. Fourth, if someone infringes upon our personal space, it could result in anxiety or stress (Altman, 1975). As Corsini (1999) mentioned, it has often been described as an invisible ‘bubble’ encircling a person (Hayduk, 1983). Despite this common description, Hayduk (1983) believed the bubble analogy was insufficient and misleading. He explained that the bubble analogy does not portray the degree of resistance accompanying intrusion effectively. The misleading aspect was derived from the fact that two bubbles repel one another when pushed together, but when two people got close to each other, their bodies would move, not their personal spaces. Furthermore, bubbles consist of a circular shape and remain the same size until they are ruptured. Personal space remains flexible and it can change depending on the surroundings and specific situations. That being said, the research on personal space has been vast (Hayduk, 1983). Personal space has been studied in conjunction with a multitude of variables such as age (Yagoda, 1982; Remland, 1995), race (Brown, 1981; Carifio, 1987), cultural differences (Aono, 1980; Beaulieu, 2004; Six, 1983), mental disorders (Nechamkin, 2003; Beekman, 1986), the menstrual cycle (O’Neal, Schultz, Christenson, 1987) and sex (Buchanan, Goldman, Juhnke, 1977; Schwarzwald, Kavish, Shoham, Waysman, 1977). Most of the research has been limited in analyzing merely sex and interpersonal distance. Sex differences have often been considered secondary since researchers tend to include other variables that make it difficult to determine cause and effect. This has been due to the fact that most researchers have not been specifically interested in sex differences, but included them in their research anyway (Altman, 1975). Although sex has been oversimplified and misinterpreted as unimportant when studying interpersonal distance, it continues to be a relevant factor. Hayduk (1983) explains that part of the problem has been that we expect sex to have simple effects because there would only be two values to interpret. This has been a misconception because sex should not be seen as a simple dichotomy (Hayduk, 1983). Altman (1975) and Hayduk (1983) both agreed that sex differences need to be understood by observing whether a male or female was approaching a male or female. As a result, there should be four possible values instead of two values. Another important factor would be to determine the relative positions of each individual (Fisher Byrne, 1975; Hayduk, 1983). Males appear to be more comfortable with adjacent spatial positions and females appear to be more comfortable with frontal spatial positions (Fisher Byrne, 1975). This difference may account for more or less personal space between males and females. Numerous studies concluded that females have smaller zones of personal space compared to males (Altman, 1975; Edney, Walker, Jordan, 1976; Fisher, 1975). On the other hand, several studies have also found no significant results at all (Greenberg, Aronow, Rauchway, 1977; Heckel Hiers, 1977; Schneider Hansvick, 1977; Rustemli, 1988). The two conclusions contradict one another. The question remains as to whether significant results concerning sex differences and personal space actually exist. Lerner, Venning, and Knapp (1975) conducted a study on the age and sex effects on personal space. In a sample of children, between kindergarten and sixth grade, it was found that significant sex effects were apparent. The sex effects that were found included the need for females to require more space from males and less space from females. Additionally, it was found that males require more space from females and less from males (Lerner, Venning, Knapp, 1975). One reason for this effect might be the age of the participants. Nevertheless, it suggests that each sex has personal space requirements. The boundary of personal space expands and contracts in diverse situations. In a study conducted by Schwarzwald, Kavish, Shoham, and Waysman (1977), it was found that under fear arousal conditions, personal space contracts. This finding coincides with Altman’s (1975) third property of personal space, which states that the invisible boundary adjusts to different situations. The experiment was performed in a laboratory setting. Participants were told that a galvanic skin response apparatus was going to check for changes. In the fear arousal condition, participants were told that the changes would be measured via electric shocks which may cause some pain or discomfort. Participants in the condition without fear arousal were also told that the changes would be measured via shocks, but were not told they would cause pain or discomfort. The participants in both conditions were told there were two stages in the process, and that they could wait in a waiting room for the next stage. U pon entering the waiting room, a confederate would appear to be waiting for their second stage in the experiment. The participant would have to pick up an overturned chair and place it anywhere to sit down. The distance recorded was between the confederate and the participant. The results showed that the influence of fear arousal on either sex influenced them to move toward someone of the same sex. Also, in a non fear induced condition, males had a tendency to be closer to a female (Schwarzwald, et al., 1977). Rustemli (1988) conducted an experiment on the effects of personal space invasion on impressions, decisions, and comfort. It should also be noted that the technique used in this study was unusual. The participants were told that the purpose of the investigation was to study the interview technique as a selection procedure. In the non-invasion condition, the interviewee (confederate) placed their chair between 100 cm and 120 cm from the interviewer (participant). Conversely, in the invasion condition, the interviewee placed their chair at approximately 10 cm between their feet and the interviewer’s feet. During the interview, a set of 12 questions would be asked by the interviewer and the interviewee would respond with rehearsed answers. After the interview was over, the participant (interviewer) would fill out an evaluation sheet. The sheet measured impressions with 20 bipolar adjectives, then it measured decisions through a 7 point scale where 1 is yes I would hire them and 7 is no I would not hire them. The sheet also measured feelings about the interview situation as a whole by asking how comfortable they were and to what degree were they comfortable. There was no variation to be found on distance manipulation upon impressions and decisions. Both male and female subjects had equally positive reactions. Conversely, male invaders produced more discomfort than female invaders. The study was conducted in Turkey, so one reason for this result may be cultural. Men may seem more threatening because they have more power and higher status (Rustemli, 1988). Buchanan and colleagues (1977) conducted a study on the violation of personal space and whether eye contact or sex had an effect upon it. Three different experiments were conducted. In the first experiment, either 2 male or 2 female confederates occupied an elevator. As a participant would step onto the elevator, one confederate would gaze at them while the other stared at the control panel. Since it was possible for the non-gazing confederate to make eye contact peripherally, experiment two was performed. This experiment was the same as the first with the exception that one confederate had there back to the control panel while reading a newspaper. In experiment 3, there was one male and one female occupying the elevator, and both were making eye contact with whoever got on it. Males were found to have no preference towards either sex regardless of any eye contact. On the other hand, females chose to invade the space of another female who was making eye contact whether the other pers on was a female or a male. One explanation for this may be that females tend to engage in more mutual glances than men (Buchanan, Goldman, Juhnke, 1977). In a study conducted by Uzzell and Horne (2006), it was found that there were some sex differences in interpersonal distance. However, the most significant differences were found in gender roles. They proposed that sex does not have a distinctive role to play in explaining interpersonal distance. Nevertheless, they recognized that gender roles have been highly correlated with sex; therefore, sex can not be ruled out completely (Uzzell Horne, 2006). Sex refers to the biological parts of a person, while gender refers to a social and cultural construction specifying how men and women should behave. There has been an escalating dissociation between sex and gender among society in recent years. As a result, it has made it more acceptable for women to assert at least some masculine traits and characteristics and for men to assert at least some feminine traits and characteristics. Whereas sex has become more polarized, gender exists along a continuum. Hence, it would be inappropriate to assume sex and gender to be the same (Uzzell Horne, 2006). These findings may have some inevitable methodological limitations in the study of interpersonal distance. The three different methodologies that have been used to examine discrepancies in personal distances include projective, laboratory, and observation. Projective procedures entail asking participants to hypothetically imagine a circumstance, and then indicate how they think they or another person would react spatially in that situation (Uzzell Horne, 2006). After reviewing the studies using this technique, Hayduk (1983) concluded that it had no credibility. It has a number of obvious flaws such as needing complex cognitive skills like reconstruction, imagination, empathy, and memory demands. Laboratory measures have also been utilized frequently. The ‘stopdistance’ method has been the most common laboratory method. The experimenter would ask one participant to enter a room and approach another participant until the point when they start feeling uncomfortable with the other person’s proximity. On the other hand, the ‘approach distance’ method would be used in a similar way. The participants would be asked to move towards another person and specify when they stop feeling comfortable. Two of the advantages to laboratory studies would be that they could be easily administered, and by arranging the setting to look like, for example, an office, the experiment could have some degree of ecological validity. The third methodology, observation, has the most ecological validity since it involves directly observing people interacting with each other in real situations and, if possible, by unobtrusive means. The observation method also conveys awareness to the most practical obscurity in the accurate measurement of interpersonal distances. The observation method includes two subtypes which attempt to be inconspicuous and field-based. The first subtype would be mostly a naturalistic, unobtrusive, and uncontrolled observation which would reflect people interacting in a real-world setting. The second subtype would be staged invasions or blocked access in natural settings. In both subtypes, either unsuspecting participants would be approached by a confederate or the paths of people would be blocked by confederates and the reactions examined. Two of the problems with each of these techniques have been ecological validity and the accuracy of measurement. Observation studies as well as laboratory studies have not been able to agree on accurate measurements of interpersonal distance. Since variations in interpersonal distances have been minimal, it would be important to be accurate. The purpose of the current study will be to look at observational research of interpersonal distance between males and females. Nearly all studies on interpersonal distance look more at social interaction than at the actual physical distance which makes this study somewhat novel. Nevertheless, we predict that the furthest distance will be between two males, next between a female approaching a male, then between a male approaching a female, and the closest distance will be between two females. Method Design A 4 X 4 between subjects research design would be used in this study. The two independent variables observed will be sex and accessories. Sex would have four levels recorded as female to male, male to female, male to male, or female to female. There would be four levels for accessories recorded as presence of a backpack, presence of a lunch tray, presence of both a lunch tray and a backpack, and the absence of a lunch tray and a backpack. The dependent variable would be the distance between the participant and the confederate. Participants One hundred undergraduate students at the University of Alabama will be observed in food lines at the Ferguson Center Food Court. Participants should vary with respect to sex and race. The sex of the students in this study should consist of roughly half males and half females. Since the study will be conducted at a University, most of the participants would probably be around the same age. Professors, staff, and non-University of Alabama undergraduates should not be included. Materials All data would be collected with pen and paper. A data sheet would be constructed with various categories to ease the collection process and allow more focus on the college students. The data sheet would consist of five categories listed in columns. The first category would be labeled ‘sex of participant’ which has two options: male or female. The second column would be labeled ‘sex of confederate’ which also has two options: male or female. The next column would be labeled ‘accessory’ which has four options: presence of a backpack, presence of a lunch tray, presence of both a lunch tray and a backpack, and the absence of a lunch tray and a backpack. The fourth column would be labeled ‘other’ and could be used to record either the race of each participant or other potential variables. The last column would be labeled ‘distance’ and would be used to record how far the participant moved when his or her personal space was invaded upon in line by the confederate. Procedure First of all, in order to help prevent observer bias, the observers would have no knowledge of the research hypotheses. They would also be trained on the method of measuring to aid the interobserver reliability. The observers and confederates would arrive at the Ferguson Center Food Court around noon since that would be the busiest time of day and as a result would lower reactivity. One individual will act as the observer and the other will act as the confederate. In order to promote fairness and to help provide a representative sample, one researcher should be female and the other male. The observer should stay within ten feet of the confederate and the presumed participant. This ought to be a safe distance and help the observer blend in with the crowd. Before the confederate invades the participant’s personal space, the observer should note the sex, race, and accessories of the participant. Then, with a head nod, the confederate could begin to invade the personal space of the person in line. The participant in line may move forward, away from the confederate, or remain in the same position to keep from interfering with someone else’s personal space. The observer would estimate the distance in feet and record it on the data sheet. After 50 participants had been entered on the data sheet, the researchers should switch places. Discussion The prediction for the present study was that the furthest distance will be between two males, next between a female approaching a male, then between a male approaching a female, and the closest distance would be between two females. These results were based upon previous research which supported the hypothesis that females have the shortest distance of personal space with another female (Buchanan, Goldman, Juhnke, 1977; Schwarzwald, et al., 1977; Lerner, Venning, Knapp, 1975). The prediction that two males would be the farthest apart was derived from societal expectations and homophobic tendencies. Society expects males to lack emotion and be strong. Conversely, society expects females to be emotional and passive. Males tend to perceive the closeness of another male as threatening to their manhood. Therefore, the furthest amount of interpersonal distance should be found between two males. A female approaching a male was predicted to have more distance than a male approaching a female due to societal expectations as well. A male has been perceived as more dominant, and would be expected to approach a female. On the other hand, a female who approaches a male may be seen as promiscuous. Thus, it seemed appropriate that a female approaching a male would contain more distance than a male approaching a female. One of the limitations of this study would be that it was performed in an uncontrolled setting. However, this could also be viewed as an advantage because it would be in a somewhat natural environment. Another limitation might be in the perception of the actual distance that the participant moved. In a naturalistic setting, it would be difficult to measure precisely how far a person moved without the result of reactivity. Although college students have been frequently used in experiments, it has been questioned whether they can represent the general population. Future research should continue to perfect a way of measuring interpersonal distance. A more reliable method would provide higher validity and reliability. Additionally, more research should be done to focus on the effects of sex on interpersonal distance. References Altman, I. (1975) The Environment and Social Behavior: Privacy, Personal Space, Territory, Crowding. Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, Monterey, CA. Aono, A. (1980). A developmental study of interpersonal distance and bodily orientation in Japan. Japanese Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19(2), 97-105. Beaulieu, C. (2004). Intercultural study of personal space: A case study. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34(4), 794-805. Beekman, M. (1986). Interpersonal distance choice and response to distance violation in paranoid and nonparanoid schizophrenic and nonpsychotic inpatients. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46(8-B), 2795. Brown, C. (1981). Shared space invasion and race. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 7(1), 103-108. Buchanan, D., Goldman, M., Juhnke, R. (1977). Eye contact, sex, and the violation of personal space. Journal of Social Psychology, 103(1), 19-25. Carifio, M. (1987). Personal space as a function of violence, race, and control. Dissertation Abstracts International, 47(7-B), 3100. Corsini, Raymond J. (1999). The Dictionary of Psychology. Psychology Press (UK) 501. Edney, J., Walker, C., Jordan, N. (1976). Is there reactance in personal space? Journal of Social Psychology, 100, 207–217. Fisher, J. Byrne, D. (1975). Too close for comfort: Sex differences in response to invasions of personal space. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 32(1), 15-21. Greenberg, E., Aronow, E., Rauchway, A. (1977). Inkblot content and interpersonal distance. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33(3), 882-887. Hayduk, L. (1978). Personal space: An evaluative and orienting view. Psychological Bulletin. 85(1), 117-134. Hayduk, L. (1983). Personal space: Where we now stand. Psychological Bulletin. 94(2), 293-335. Heckel, R., Hiers, J. (1977). Social distance and locus of control. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 33(2), 469-471. Lerner, R., Venning, J., Knapp, J. (1975). Age and sex effects on personal space schemata toward body build in late childhood. Developmental Psychology, 11(6), 855-856. Nechamkin, Y., Salganik, I., Modai, I., Ponizovsky, A. (2003).Interpersonal distance in schizophrenic patients: Relationship to negative syndrome. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 49(3), 165. ONeal, E., Schultz, J., Christenson, T. (1987). The menstrual cycle and personal space. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 11(1), 26-32. Remland, M., Jones, T., Brinkman, H. (1995). Interpersonal distance, body orientation, and touch: Effects of culture, gender, and age. Journal of Social Psychology, 135 (3), 281-297. Rustemli, A. (1988). The effects of personal space invasion on impressions and decisions. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 122(2), 113-118. Schneider, F., Hansvick, C. (1977). Gaze and distance as a function of changes in interpersonal gaze. Social Behavior Personality: An International Journal, 5(1), 49. Schwarzwald, J., Kavish, N., Shoham, M. (1977) Fear and sex-similarity as determinants of personal space. Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 96(1), 55-61. Six, B. Martin, P., Pecher, M. (1983). A cultural comparison of perceived crowding and discomfort: The United States and West Germany. Journal of Psychology, 114(1), 63. Uzzell, D. Horne, N. (2006). The influence of biological sex, sexuality and gender role on interpersonal distance. British Journal of Social Psychology, 45(3), 579- 597. Yagoda, L. (1982). Interpersonal distance and dependency in children as related to adults and peers. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43(1-B), 238. Research Papers on Spatial Differences Between Males and FemalesThe Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseResearch Process Part OneEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenIncorporating Risk and Uncertainty Factor in CapitalThree Concepts of PsychodynamicInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesAnalysis Of A Cosmetics AdvertisementComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoUnreasonable Searches and SeizuresMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever Product

Friday, February 28, 2020

Discussion DB 5 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Discussion DB 5 - Essay Example Given below are the three products for which the consumer demand has been found decreasing for the recent years. Carbonated soft-drinks Until the recent years, the per capita consumption of carbonated soft-drinks has been increasing at a high speed in the established markets. However, the demographic trends have caused the products to reach at their decline stage. Throughout the established countries, teenagers and youngsters contributed the most part of consumers for soft drinks. The decline of popularity in these countries can also be attributed to the decreasing birth rates and ageing populations, for the condition would reduce the demand for the carbonated soft-drink products. The number of people most likely to consume carbonated soft-drink products declined to a very low level in the established markets. Another important problem is the society’s increased focus on â€Å"health and fitness, well-being, and their anxiety about obesity†; for example, Coca-Cola has b ecome the victim of this phenomenon recently (â€Å"Coca-cola innovates†, 2010). Toilet soaps The consumer demand for the toilet soaps has gone down to its lowest point. Firms find it difficult to move their toilet products, especially soaps out of the market.

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Gender, Race, and Philosophy Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Gender, Race, and Philosophy - Research Paper Example The main traditional, philosophical discourse had been that women were lesser human beings than men. But after feminist philosophers had demonstrated that women too had the capacity to do virtually anything men could do during the second half of the 20th century, predominantly male societies have over the history gradually given women more options in individual and social life (Solomon, & Higgins, 2013). It is then arguable that de Beauvoir’s The Second Sex has had tremendous impacts on womens rights and gender roles by allowing women more authority over their reproductive, educational, career and suffrage rights among others. Apart from de Beauvoir, Schick and Vaugh (2008) said, Mahatma Gandhi was one of the most prominent 20th century figures in India who is credited for acknowledging women’s efforts as imperative to every society. Gandhi had a soft spot for women. He perceived them as complementing men’s contribution in the growth of society. Gandhi castigated stereotyping women as weak and lesser by refusing child marriage and obsession for dowry as well as seclusion (purdah). He, however, believed that proper gender roles demanded that a woman meets the interests of her husband, family and society, in that

Friday, January 31, 2020

Rational Choice Theory Human Essay Example for Free

Rational Choice Theory Human Essay Kidnapping John was an ordinary struggling employee of a newspaper firm. One cannot tell by appearances what the mind is capable of, or is it situations that can arouse criminal intelligence in any one of us. However, it is when thoughts transform into actions that crime is committed and what is it that causes this transformation: opportunity. Crime Script John sat thinking of possible options. It has been a mistake to switch two jobs in three years. Not only did he not have a decent designation, he barely made enough to sustain himself, let alone repay the 00 loan installments. Mr. Woolmar, the Boss, did not even know his full name properly in the six months that he had worked, let alone give him any financial help. He would have to do something drastic, something quick and maybe even something illegal. And it would have to be alone. Nothing in office, there were too many cameras. The next-door neighbours just had a baby kidnapping? Yes, but not a baby. Rob someone, take their cash, ATM, and car. Parking lots are good for that, no police, and hardly any public to get alerted and call 911. Yes, parking lots, that is where most crimes are committed, at least in the movies. Resources and setting up John required first of all, a gun. The only person whom he knew had a gun was his colleague, Sarah, who after attempted burglary at her residence had obtained an official permit to keep a gun for self-defense. He mentioned having to write an article on gun engineering and asked if he could borrow it for a few hours†¦office time only. He would take it at twelve ‘o clock, study the components, and return it at five before she leaves for home. Sarah, as her permit allowed her to carry the gun on her person, bought it to office the next day. All he cared about was that it was small in size, not too visible in his coat. Could have been a toy gun, some do look scarier than the real thing. The mask was cut out of a ladies polo neck shirt that he had bought at Labels yesterday, two holes for the eyes, a little slit for breathing and one for talking. Black, and cotton, he did not want the stifling nervous feeling to make him faint. A sports bag, to carry everything and sports gear, to look like: ‘I have just left gym and an going home. ’ This disguise also allowed him to wear joggers, which made less noise as he approached. Another factor that made him soundless was the linoleum floor of the parking lot. Linoleum is especially designed to absorb noise and shock from car tyres so that parking lots are serene. Little did floor manufacturers know how this ‘benefit’ would transform into a security hazard. He had also chosen a parking area that is mostly vacant during office lunch hours. A block away from his office was Hallman’s Securities: home to few of the richest brokers in the city. These were people who had it all and more. For them, a few thousand dollars amiss would not matter. All this was information gained from his very own newspaper articles. Actors and doing it As soon as it was One, John changed into his sports gear in the restroom, signed out ‘Gone for lunch’ walked two blocks down and started jogging as he approached the parking lot. A few stretches and he even smiled at a few lady lawyers walking out with their coffee flasks who waved back distracted. Most cars he had noticed parked in the morning, as he had stopped on his way to office, were not there. The red BMW was missing, it had particularly caught his attention because of its shine. The guard on duty was nowhere to be seen, lunch hours for everyone, hopefully. He continued with his stretches and hoped for the gentleman who had parked his Vitz at exactly 8:45, at the other end, to come out after a few more minutes when the movement died down. And there he was, navy blue shirt, maroon tie, grey trousers and the salt and pepper hair. Not really elderly enough to make John feel guilty, more of a younger wealthy CEO variety. John could now understand ‘rob the rich, give to the poor. ’ Ducking under the fichus undergrowth, John quickly put on his mask and sprinted to the other end. The gentleman nonchalantly put the keys in the lock, the rustling of leaves in the wind providing further cover to Johns hurried arrival. It was only â€Å"I have a gun, do as I say! ’ that made him stop, stiffen and put his hands up. â€Å"Get into the car, fast, don’t look back! † and John crouched low in the back seat. Once in the car, he could talk more, explain his situation, now that the gun was out of the view. â€Å"Give me your wallet, watch, and anything else that you are carrying! And you had better not hold anything back or else † said John as he poked the nozzle into his ribs. But the white-faced man was too shocked to comply. â€Å"Can’t you hear me?!! † and the second jolt startled his poor victim into action. John felt like an actor in a play. He had to force the ruthlessness into his voice; it was not coming naturally. Maybe that is how all criminals feel the first time. He wished he had not started this, but it was too late now, he had started committing the offence, might as well go all the way and reap the reward. At least he could thank his oratory skills for not fumbling with the words or faltering in volume to give away his own apprehensions. â€Å"Now you have to drive to the nearest ATM, NORMALLY, smile at people as they pass, NO ONE MUST SUSPECT, YOU UNDERSTAND! † said John, and the car started. Both the villain and the victim were on auto-pilot, like a robot drove the grey-haired man, knowing exactly where to turn, to stop at red lights, stare straight ahead, not looking here or there. John kept his gaze and nozzle fixated at his victim, ignoring the need to look around lest he give away the game. It was a slow mechanical drive. The car stopped at the ATM. It was one of those booth varieties. â€Å"I will wait outside† said John. â€Å"Take out your maximum and be out in two minutes, or I will come and shoot you inside. † Those two minutes seemed like eternity. John kept looking at his watch. What if the man had two cell phones, and had given John only one. What if he will look up the window and see a blue uniform holding a gun at him? A girl passed by the pavement, oblivious of everything except the tune in her I-pod. Then he heard the thud of the booth and saw a flash of Navy blue. Alerted to his teeth, he only breathed as he realized it was his fellow, not the cops. The man turned around and handed the cash. â€Å"That was all the limit allowed. † Silence as John counted the nine hundred and fifty dollars. Add that to the six hundred in the wallet, the five hundred the Tissot would go for, John realized that he would have to execute Part B of the plan, steal the car. Anyway it would be better to have the car to drive off in than to have to disappear from the crime on foot. â€Å"Drive and stop where I tell you! † China town was what John had in mind, there were less phone booths and more Chinese than American in that area. It would take longer for an American to get help there than anywhere else in New York. Jumping onto the passenger seat, John shouted’ â€Å"Get Out! † at the back alley. Yanking the mask off and driving at full speed John neither looked left or right as he speeded to the little repair shop run by the Mexican who had repaired the almost falling-apart foxy belonging to his Indian friend, Ranjeet. That was the only place he had ever seen a shady deal done, when suddenly a brand new Volvo was deposited by two high schoolers who walked away with cash in their pockets and smiles on their faces. The economic and emotional decadence that had disgusted him then, seemed so all right and understandable now. A crime does not feel like a crime if your needs are greater than the needs of your victim. Here too, the actions seemed rehearsed. Stop the car near the garage, walk inside, but a cigarette and open the packet to find the 4 smokes and the amount the Mexican feels is appropriate for the new arrival. Which was appropriate for John as well: A full two thousand and five hundred dollars. He may even give four hundred to charity to wash away his sin. He was just waiting for a taxi as he saw the Vitz being slowly pushed into the repair shop and the gate being closed. A few directions to the Indian cab driver, a speedy drive to office, a rush to the restroom where John changed back into his office attire, leaving the clothes and joggers in the huge trash bin, John was back at his desk at 2:15. â€Å"Rather early lunch? Was it a date? † asked Bob, his colleague â€Å"Yeah, sort of† said John as he finished formatting the article on why it is dangerous to polish guns on your own inside the house. â€Å"Here Sarah, thanks a lot, how do u use this thing? † Rational Choice Theory Human beings are rational creatures. That is why God created heaven and hell. We make the right choices there, because God is always watching. But cops are not always watching, so it is possible for would-be criminals to get away with a lot of things since â€Å"where there is a will, there is a way. † Crime arises when motivation meets opportunity. One may have the mind but not the means. If crimes such as Johns are to be prevented, either one or both of these factors would have to be reduced/removed from society. Motivation for crimes of financial nature, such as Johns, arises from need. It is not a case of a rich man trying to get richer by swindling the shareholders of his company. It is performing the big crime of kidnapping for a few thousand dollars. As said ‘Rationality involves an end/means calculation† (Sutton). Kidnappers may face lengthy terms in prison. The harsh sentences imposed and the poor risk-to-benefit ratio compared with other crimes have caused kidnapping for ransom virtually to die out in the United States. It may be that John was not aware of the consequences of getting caught. Here the question arises as to what were the violent actions the loan shark had threatened to take, that provoked John to risk something greater. A loan shark, is someone who illegally charges interest over the states legal limit, which could range up to, or even over 100% and threatens violence or damage to a persons reputation. John could have come clean to the local police and requested for security. However, if the motivating factor was damage to reputation, it would have been disastrous for John as his career as a writer in a newspaper. A more comprehensive approach is needed to reduce the incidence of such crimes. The government may need to create public awareness about the seriousness and penalties of committing various crimes so that the law is not taken lightly in times of stress. The underlying problem, however, is economical. â€Å"With the new decade of 2010 upon us, little has changed and further victimizing seems inevitable as financial desperation increases globally in more households† (Sifakis, 1999). The government must crack down on the loan shark system and introduce schemes of credit borrowing from the State itself depending on merit and below market interest rates. In fact, why not without interest at all? Interest has been looked down upon in a few religions of the world because it makes the poor, poorer and the rich, richer. Had John had access to such a borrowing system, he may not have fallen prey to a local loan shark. John’s situation mentions that he has no family or friends. A very often and sad situation in the new American society is the loneliness of the individual. In other cultures, expenses and liabilities are shared by family members especially those living in a joint family system. Such a system also automatically keeps an emotional check and an eye on every member where deviance in behaviour or mood is immediately noticed. Problems are discussed and sorted out. When society becomes individualistic and there is less and less of a support structure, financial and psychological factors combine to breed crime Motivation is all in the mind. But the body acts only if there is an opportunity. If there is a situation in which the crime can be performed. John chose not to rob a bank because he did not have access to professional assistants. John chose not to defraud his employer because he lacked the IT expertise and there were surveillance cameras in office. He had the motivation for both of these, but did not have the opportunity so the crimes were not committed. Therefore the government needs to focus on situational crime prevention. This includes making public areas safer for people. Parking lots and parks often get deserted. More surveillance cameras must be installed. Security guards must be employed in shifts. Criminals commit crime mostly because they think they will not get caught. A general awareness of crime prevention must be installed in society. Situational crime prevention does not mean obtaining permits for guns. The more guns there are out there, the more the chances of anyone getting hurt. Obviously a gun is made to kill. One in ten will. The danger of it falling into the wrong hands is too great. Guns get jammed and fire at the wrong times. There have been numerous deaths around the world because of guns kept at home. Another factor in urban crime prevention is to assimilate the various ethnicities of a metropolitan into the community whole-heartedly. â€Å"Immediate steps can be taken to reclaim the urban environment and recreate a sense of community. Migrants in multicultural cities, who have internalized the culture conflict between two worlds, can be assisted in gaining new identities and allegiances† (United Nations Team, 1995). Poverty-stricken, derelict areas on the outskirts of metropolitans are like breeding areas or crime ports, where goods can be deposited, sold, purchased out of need but always with a racial revenge in the subconscious. In John’s case the Mexican was a character, which symbolized this mafia. If at the end of his crime, John did not have a place to sell the Vitz, the crime may not have arisen at all, since no one would be carrying four thousand dollars cash anyway. The crime had not been completed until John sold the car. The victim had time to contact the authorities. However, in such situations a victim’s reactions are often late especially if the aggressor is strong or loud. While the victim was inside the ATM booth he could have looked into the CCTV camera and made signs to indicate his situation. A compulsory self-defense course must be introduced at all private and public schools so that victims are at least able to respond for help at the right time and place. This would ensure a lot of criminals being taken off guard. After a crime is committed, it is the States responsibility to punish. â€Å"The Swiftness, Severity, and Certainty of punishment are the key elements in understanding a laws ability to control human behavior† (Keel, 1997). The rational choice theory states that the benefit of the crime is greater than the pain: ‘Choice can be controlled through the perception and understanding of the potential pain or punishment that will follow an act judged to be in violation of the social good, the social contract,† (Lilly, Cullen and Ball, 1995). Whenever a crime attempt is aborted, a criminal punished, the story must flash on the media and be registered into the minds of the public, for human beings learn readily by example. Some societies go to the extent of public floggings and executions, so that all ye may learn. Utilizing the media for the good of the community is a governmental responsibility. The State may do much but it is the power of the people that can also be quite a deterrent to crime. † Self-help schemes have proven highly effective in well-organized communities. Specific crime prevention measures, such as neighbourhood block watches and neighbourhood courts, work best in partnership with local authorities, scrupulously avoiding vigilantism. † (United Nations Team, 1995. ) In many metropolitans, for example in Karachi, citizens have joined hands with the local area police to make their localities / cities safer places to live in; an organization named CPLC (Citizens Police Liaison Committee) with the slogan ‘Lets beat crime together’ has distributed car stickers with phone numbers easily displayed so that anyone who notices anything suspicious may inform it. Conclusion All efforts of the State and citizens alike must be more focused on eradicating ‘the way’ (that is, opportunity) because it is easier to eradicate than ‘the will’ (that is, motivation), which requires a long-term strategy. ‘To err is human† and the devil may open his workshop anywhere but as long as there is no opportunity, crime commission does not occur. The rational choice theory states that motivation and opportunity combine for crime commission. However sometimes motivation is not a factor at all. Even if the State and community are ideal, there are serial killers and psychopaths who commit crimes only because there are opportunities. John had the opportunity to kidnap and commit theft and he would have done it even if he were a serial killer who had a fetish for killing grey-haired men, instead of having been driven to it because of financial problems. Sometimes it is just temptation or the thrill of doing something daring and forbidden, that replaces motivational factors such as poverty or racism. So we may conclude that opportunity of crime can be equal to possibility of crime and though economic and sociological environments must be such that they deter crime, it is more relevant for the authorities to focus on situational crime prevention. References Kopel, D. B. (1995). Guns: who should have them?.. New York: Prometheus books. Keel, R. O. (1997). Rational Choice and Deterrence Theory. Lilly, J. Robert, Cullen, Francis T. and Ball, Richard A. (1995). Criminological Theory: Context and Consequences (2nd ed. ). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc. Sifakis, C. (1999). The Mafia Encyclopedia Checkmark Books Sutton, D, Ronald V. Clarke. Retrieved May 17th, 2010 from http://www. criminology. fsu. edu/crimtheory/clarke. htm United Nations. (1995, April). Stop Crime. Retrieved May 17th, 2010, from http://www. un. org/ecosocdev/geninfo/crime/dpi1646e. htm

Thursday, January 23, 2020

The Benin Bronzes Essay -- Benin Brass Plaques

This essay deals with the nature of a cross cultural encounter between the Benin people and Portuguese traders in the 15th and 16th centuries, which resulted in the depiction of Portuguese figures in Benin brass plaques. It will propose that this contact between people with different cultures was on the basis of 'mutual regard' (Woods, K. 2008, p. 16), and although the Portuguese had qualms about idolatry in Benin it will show that assumptions by Europeans up to the 20th century of the primitive nature of tribal African societies was inaccurate with regard to the Benin people, who had a society based on the succession of the King or 'Oba', a Royal Family and Nobility. The essay will finally suggest that Benin’s increase in wealth following the arrival of the Portuguese led to a resurgence in bronze sculptures and the introduction of a new form, the rectilinear plaque. The plaque under consideration, is of a forward facing man, with an aquiline nose, thin lips, neatly trimmed beard, wearing a sun hat with flaps and looking intently at the viewer. He is dressed in a typical 16th century Portuguese style, wearing a decorated tunic with padded shoulders and tight breeches with short boots. He has a business like manner, carrying in his right hand a brass manilla, the main item of exchange with Benin, and a walking cane in the other. It is significant that he is not armed, clearly indicating he is safe in foreign surroundings. The background is pleasingly stylised with clusters of petals set against a stippled ground imbuing a secure feeling. It seems probable that Fernao Gomes, a Portuguese 'merchant adventurer' discovered the kingdom of Benin in 1474 (Wood, K. 2008, p. 8), seeking trading opportunities and looking for gold. The... case for the retention of the British Benin sculptures is to accord them the unique status they deserve as exceptional artworks and exhibit them appropriately in a prestigious national art gallery, for everyone to appreciate fully. Works Cited Flinders, P. and Holman, K. and others, (2012) AA100 'Tutorial Forum Book 3, Weeks, 1 and 2' – Benin , online at, accessed between 4 and 17 February, 2015. Loftus, D. and Wood, P. (2008), 'The Art of Benin: Changing Relations Between Europe and Africa II' in Brown, R. D. (ed.) Cultural Encounters (AA100 Book 3), Milton Keynes, The Open University, pp. 43-87. The Art of Benin, (2009), AA100 DVD ROM, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University, (2008), AA100 Illustration Book (Plates for Books 3 and 4), Milton Keynes, The Open University.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Domestic Issues Faced By The United States Of America Essay

Human Rights – human rights in the United States has been criticized for their practices and policies. The record shows that human rights in the United States are complicated and controversial issue. Racial discrimination – Whether they are African American or Native American they are all human beings. Policy advice – blacks should be treated equally and can have the same opportunities and protection from the government just like the whites get. Segregation of white and black is a good consideration too. Inhumane Treatment Death Penalty – human rights is the maximum and irreversible denial under the death penalty. It is controversial for its capital punishment. It is inhumane, cruel and unusual violation. Policy advice is to prohibit execution. Prison System – imprisonment of children and teenagers. A lot of mistreatment, rape, sexual abuse etc. Those behaviors are unlawful. Policy advice – give medical care, stop prisoner rape, add more security and abolish death sentence. GLOBAL ISSUES FACED BY THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Global Warming – ‘the earth’s temperature is rising’. Policy advice – we have to have a major sacrifices to solve the problem. Global Health Issues – ‘every year millions of people die needlessly because of poverty’. Policy advice – privatization of health system. World Hunger and Poverty Land Rights – ‘owning of land’. Policy advice – build a program to provide land ownership for the poor. Rainforest Destruction – one effect of the banana industry is ‘rainforest destruction and dependent economies. Policy advice – prioritize the local market before exporting. To conclude, it is important to know our rights in the society because each one of us is entitled to have our own niche in this country and even in this world. R E F E R E N C E S Free, Marvin D. Jr. (November 1997). â€Å"The Impact of Federal Sentencing Reforms on African Americans† 28 (2): pp. 268-286. Retrieved on 2007-05-31. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Human_rights_in_the_United_States#cite_note-1 Anup Shah, Food and Agriculture Issues, GlobalIssues. org, Created: Monday, December 03, 2007 http://www. globalissues. org/food/

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Analysis Of Poems By Robert Frost And Wilfred Owen

In the poems, Robert Frost and Wilfred Owen both create sympathy for the characters through different ways. In ‘Disabled’, Owen paints a vivid, moving picture of a soldier who has been injured in World War One and lost his legs and an arm. Wilfred Owen himself took part in the war, consequently witnessing first hand many young men whose lives were similarly destroyed. In the poem, ‘Out, Out’, Robert Frost shows the fragility of life in two ways. Firstly alluding to Shakespeare’s metaphor in ‘Macbeth’s soliloquy’ - ‘Out, out, brief candle’, which informs the reader that life is very short and fragile. Moreover, Frost looks at the themes of sudden death and child labour to help to make this a very sad and shocking poem. The poem reflects the tragedy of the accidental death of a child doing a man’s job. Frost’s description of setting, imagery, and tone create a moving poem with a horrifying ending that leav es the reader feeling despaired at the bleakness of the situation and quite shocked. Even in the structure of the poem, Wilfred Owen shows us a compassionate portrait of loss by switching between and comparing the soldier’s experiences ‘before’ and ‘after’ war time, and the related memories and emotions, for instance: â€Å"And girls glanced lovelier as the air grew dim- In old times, before he threw away his knees†. This example shows the constant comparison and reminder of the soldier’s loss - his regret for disposing of his knees, wasting them, creates pity, which can alsoShow MoreRelatedDeath Is The Mental State Of The Boy913 Words   |  4 Pagesinvolving death, death becomes inevitable. In â€Å"Out, Out-† by Robert Frost, death is the physical state of the boy and is an accident full of fright, while in â€Å"Disabled† by Wilfred Owen, death is the mental state of the narrator and the monotony of his life became after losing his legs; however, both poems illustrate the idea that life continues after one’s death. In a physical sense, death can be quick and sudden. In â€Å"Out, Out-† Frost depicts a frightful and the accidental physical death of the